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Big Basin State Park: the OWCH loop [17-plus miles and 1600-feet climb from sea level, California redwoods and chaparral, flowers, slugs, and newts]

The OWCH loop

Notes by J. Zimmerman.

The route is named OWCH for being arduous and having these components:

Even though Chalk Mountain is only 1600 feet high, we have much greater elevation gain/loss along the ravine-riddled and bumpy trail. The elevation changes reported below were measured by photographer Patrick Gallagher in his "TOPO! program that measures gross elevation gain and distance from a route trace":

The original OWCH route:

Allow 9 hours. Take a flashlight in case you run out of daylight.

Alternate gentler route: Detour from the Henry Creek Trail down the Golden Rabbit Hole side trail to Golden Falls. Continue downhill past Silver Falls and Berry Creek Falls, joining and heading ocean-ward on Skyline to the Sea.

With the minimum of rests and with refreshments on the march, these are the approximate times taken solo on November 11th, 2009.

With a great deal of pauses to investigate lichen and flowers and with almost an hour for lunch on the summit of Chalk Mountain, these are the approximate times taken by a 5-person group on April 1st, 2010.

See also the Berry Creek Falls Loop (BCFL) Trail in the Forest of Big Basin State Park (California); our 7-year Flower-slug-newt count graph; and our monthly Berry Creek Falls Loop reports:

Flower species seen

January 15th, 2009:


February 5th, 2009:

Over 250 California newts; lots of banana slugs: first rainy day for a month.

Feral alien flowers include: daffodil; forget-me-not; paperwhite narcissus.

  1. Bush lupine. Yellow.
  2. Bush poppy. Yellow.
  3. BYCs: Big Yellow composites.
  4. California (or Pacific) blackberry (Rubus ursinus). White.
  5. California strawberry (Fragaria californica). White.
  6. Hound's tongue. Blue.
  7. Manzanita: Brittle Leaved manzanita. White.
  8. Manzanita: Small-leaved (sensitive) manzanita. White.
  9. Monkey flower. Orange.
  10. Paintbrush. Scarlet.
  11. Toothwort (Dentaria californica). Pink.

Also un-id'd white composite.


March 12th, 2009:

Dozens and dozens of banana slugs; a handful of newts; sunny and cool.

Feral alien flowers include: daffodil; forget-me-not; snowdrop; white nightshade (Solanum nodiflorum).

  1. Big-leaf maple. Drooping slim clusters of green blossoms with red-tinged center.
  2. Bush Poppy. Yellow.
  3. BYCs: Big Yellow composites.
  4. California (or Pacific) blackberry (Rubus ursinus). White.
  5. California buttercup. Yellow.
  6. California strawberry (Fragaria californica). White.
  7. California wild lilac (a.k.a. California Blue Brush) (Ceanothus thyrsiflorus).
  8. Checker lily (a.k.a. mission bells; a.k.a. Chocolate lily). Previously designated Fritillaria lanceolata and now corrected to Fritillaria affins
  9. Coltsfoot (Petasites frigidus).
  10. Cudweed (with yellow center).
  11. Figwort: California figwort (a.k.a. California bee-plant) (Scrophularia californica): short red-brown snapdragon-like flowers with overbite (2 upper petals project); stems square and coarse; leaves large and square; height to 6 feet.
  12. Huckleberry.
  13. Hound's tongue. Blue.
  14. Lupine: Valley Lupine.
  15. Manzanita: Brittle-leaved manzanita; showy white clusters of flowers.
  16. Manzanita: Manzanita: Small-leaved (sensitive) manzanita. White.
  17. Miner's lettuce.
  18. Monkey flower. Orange.
  19. Red alder catkins.
  20. Redwood sorrel (Oxalis oregana). Pink; sometimes white, mauve, or bluish.
  21. Redwood violet.
  22. Thimbleberry. White.
  23. Toothwort (Dentaria californica). Pink.
  24. Western sweet cicely.
  25. Western wake robin (Trillium ovatum).
  26. Western wood anemone (a.k.a. Wind flower or Oregon anemone) (Anemone oregana). White.

Also un-id'd white composite.


April 8th, 2009:

Well over a hundred newts; mainly at the higher elevations; close to 100 banana slugs; cloudy, damp, and cool.

Similar high numbers of newts on a sunny day in a series of rainy days: April 1st, 2010:

Feral alien flowers include: the lovely forget-me-not, in blue clouds hovering under oaks; white nightshade (Solanum nodiflorum).

Natives:

  1. Big-leaf maple. Drooping slim clusters of green blossoms with red-tinged center.
  2. Bush Poppy. Yellow.
  3. Bleeding Hearts (Dicentra formosa). Slightly flattened heart-shaped rose-pink flowers nodding above lacy and pinnated leaves.
  4. Blue Dicks (Dentaria californica). Blue.
  5. BYCs: Big Yellow composites.
  6. California (or Pacific) blackberry (Rubus ursinus). White.
  7. California buttercup. Yellow.
  8. Figwort: California figwort (a.k.a. California bee-plant) (Scrophularia californica): short red-brown snapdragon-like flowers with overbite (2 upper petals project); stems square and coarse; leaves large and square; height to 6 feet.
  9. California strawberry (Fragaria californica). White.
  10. Checker lily (a.k.a. mission bells; a.k.a. Chocolate lily). Previously designated Fritillaria lanceolata and now corrected to Fritillaria affins
  11. Coltsfoot (Petasites frigidus).
  12. Cudweed (with yellow center).
  13. Hill star (Lithophragma heterophylla). White; a rounded or squared ovary base [rather than the V-shaped ovary base of the woodland star (Lithophragma affinis)].
  14. Hooker's fairy bell (Disporum hookeri).
  15. Hound's tongue. Blue.
  16. Solomon's seal: Star (or slim) Solomon's seal (Smilacina stellata). White 6-petaled flowers on separate stems. (As opposed to Branched (or fat) Solomon's seal (Smilacina racemosa).)
  17. Huckleberry.
  18. Iris: Fernald's Iris (Iris fernaldii). [Pale creamy yellow flowers. Low ovary. Narrow leaves; slightly dusty.]
  19. Lupine: Valley Lupine.
  20. Madia: Common madia (alternate leaves) (Madia elegans).
  21. Manzanita: Manzanita: Small-leaved (sensitive) manzanita. White.
  22. Miner's lettuce. White.
  23. Monkey flower. Orange.
  24. Poppy: California poppy (Eschscholzia californica). Orange.
  25. Poppy: Coast poppy (variation of California poppy?). Two-tone petals: yellow in outer two-thirds; orange in inner third.
  26. Redwood sorrel (Oxalis oregana). Pink; sometimes white, mauve, or bluish.
  27. Thimbleberry. White.
  28. Toothwort (Dentaria californica). Pink.
  29. Violet: Redwood violet.
  30. Violet: Smooth Yellow Violet (Viola glabella). [Peterson Pacific State Wildflowers pp.162-163 and John Hunter Thomas pp.240-242.] (2010)
  31. Yellow sanicle (a.k.a. snakeroot) Sanicula arctopoides.


May 4th, 2009: 10:35 a.m. - 7:15 p.m. (8.7 hours).

Feral alien flowers include: bull thistle (Cirsium vulgare); forget-me-not; Queen Anne's lace (Daucus carota); white nightshade (Solanum nodiflorum); wild radish.

Mysterious pampas grass experiment in progress:
WHAT: a stand of Pampas grass with green leaves rising to 3 or 4 feet then falling to the ground and extending about 5 feet from center of base; 5 brown stalks, 3 with shabby plumes to 10 feet high. (I do not know when they flowered and seeded.)

WHERE: 100 yards up Sky-Sea trail (left turn from dirt road past the gate immediately above Rancho Del Oso Office). On the left of the trail is a stake with number 2 (in black and white, a self-guide marker like others on this trail). The pampas grass is on the right of the trail and opposite the number-2 stake.

WHEN: Noon on 4th May 2009. First seen 30th April 9:30 a.m.

HOW FLAGGED: for about 10 feet along the edge of the trail, 4 irregular stakes (2 to 3 feet high) tied with string (a psychological rather than a physical barrier) at about 2 feet up. A plastic-covered page shows the message:

"Do not enter or disturb this area: invasive species study in progress.
Any questions please ask for Dylan at the nature and history center of Rancho del Oso.
-- thank you.
California state park system.

Natives included:

  1. Big-leaf maple. Drooping slim clusters of green blossoms with red-tinged center.
  2. Bleeding heart: Western bleeding heart (Dicentra formosa). Mauvish-red.
  3. Blue Dicks (Dentaria californica). Blue.
  4. Bunchberry (Cornus canadensis). White. (Dogwood family; 4 white sepals around tiny flowers).
  5. Bush Poppy. Yellow.
  6. BYCs: Big Yellow composites.
  7. California (or Pacific) blackberry (Rubus ursinus). White.
  8. California broom, a.k.a. deerweed (Lotus scoparius). Yellow and red.
  9. California buckeye (Aesculus californica). White.
  10. California buttercup. Yellow.
  11. California strawberry (Fragaria californica).
  12. California wild lilac (a.k.a. California Blue Brush) (Ceanothus thyrsiflorus).
  13. Chaparral pea (Pickeringia montana).
  14. Cow parsnip (Heracleum lanatum).
  15. Elderberry.
  16. Figwort: California figwort (a.k.a. California bee-plant) (Scrophularia californica): short red-brown snapdragon-like flowers with overbite (2 upper petals project); stems square and coarse; leaves large and square; height to 6 feet.
  17. Globe lily: White globe lily (Calochortus albus).
  18. Hill star (Lithophragma heterophylla). White; a rounded or squared ovary base [rather than the V-shaped ovary base of the woodland star (Lithophragma affinis)].
  19. Huckleberry (Vaccinium ovatum).
  20. Lupine ssp.
  21. Madia: Common madia (alternate leaves) (Madia elegans).
  22. Manzanita: Manzanita: Small-leaved (sensitive) manzanita. White.
  23. Miner's lettuce.
  24. Monkey flower. Orange.
  25. Pacific star flower (Trientalis latifolia).
  26. Red clintonia (Clintonia andrewsiana).
  27. Redwood sorrel (Oxalis oregana). Pink; sometimes white, mauve, or bluish.
  28. Redwood violet.
  29. Solomon's seal: Star (or slim) Solomon's seal (Smilacina stellata). White 6-petaled flowers on separate stems. (As opposed to Branched (or fat) Solomon's seal (Smilacina racemosa).)
  30. Thimbleberry. White.
  31. Toothwort (Dentaria californica). Pink.
  32. Vetches (Vicia) ssp.
  33. Yellow sanicle (a.k.a. snakeroot) Sanicula arctopoides.


June 4th, 2009:

No newts; a handful of banana slugs; more bunnies (including quite small ones) than sluggos. Mild, cloudy.

Feral alien flowers include: bull thistle (Cirsium vulgare); forget-me-not; foxglove (Digitalis purpurea); New Zealand fireweed (Erichtides minima); Queen Anne's lace (Daucus carota); stinging nettle; white nightshade (Solanum nodiflorum); wild radish; yellow sweet clover.

Mysterious pampas grass experiment (location described in May) still in progress:

Now: the stand of Pampas grass has lost its plumes (apparently cut off and removed) and some of the vitality of its green leaves; central leaves are fading to brown.

Natives included:

  1. Alum root (a.k.a. crevice heuchera or small-flowered heuchera) (Heuchera micrantha).
  2. Blackberry: California (or Pacific) blackberry (Rubus ursinus). White.
  3. Bleeding heart: Western bleeding heart (Dicentra formosa). Mauvish-red.
  4. Blue Dicks (Dentaria californica). Blue.
  5. Buckeye: California buckeye (Aesculus californica). White.
  6. Bush Lupine. Yellow.
  7. Bush Poppy. Yellow.
  8. Ceanothus: California wild lilac a.k.a. California Blue Brush (Ceanothus thyrsiflorus).
  9. Chamise. White.
  10. Chaparral pea (Pickeringia montana).
  11. Cow parsnip (Heracleum lanatum).
  12. Deerweed, a.k.a. California broom (Lotus scoparius). Yellow and red.
  13. Elderberry: the Coast red elderberry (Sambucus callicarpa), with white flowers in dome-shaped clusters; some shrubs had ripe scarlet berries, half-harvested by birds.
  14. Eriogonum: Naked eriogonum (Eriogonum nudum).
  15. Fiddle neck (Amsinckia intermedia). Yellow 5-petal along the top of an uncoiling stem.
  16. Figwort: California figwort (a.k.a. California bee-plant) (Scrophularia californica): short red-brown snapdragon-like flowers with overbite (2 upper petals project); stems square and coarse; leaves large and square; height to 6 feet.
  17. Flax: Western blue flax (Linum perenne). Blue.
  18. Globe lily: White globe lily (Calochortus albus).
  19. Hairy star tulip a.k.a. Fuzzy pussy ears (Calochortus tolmiei).
  20. Hawkweed (white); similar growth pattern to madia.
  21. Hedge nettle: California hedge nettle. Pink.
  22. Huckleberry (Vaccinium ovatum).
  23. Iris: Fernald's Iris (Iris fernaldii).
  24. Lupine (Lupinus ssp.).
  25. Madia: Common madia (alternate leaves) (Madia elegans).
  26. Manzanita: Manzanita: Small-leaved (sensitive) manzanita. White.
  27. Milkwort: California milkwort (Polygala californica) Rose-purple pea-like flowers on a compact herbaceous plant with dark leaves.
  28. Miner's lettuce. White.
  29. Monkey flower. Orange.
  30. Oak catkins; smallish tree with small soft leaves: possibly California scrub oak.
  31. Ocean Spray (Holodiscus discolor): shrub with creamy-white sprays of tiny 5-petal, 5 pistils, and long stamens.
  32. Pacific star flower (Trientalis latifolia).
  33. Paintbrush.
  34. Poppy: California poppy. Yellow.
  35. Poppy: Coast poppy. Yellow: darker in central third of petals.
  36. Poisoned Oak.
  37. Red clintonia (Clintonia andrewsiana).
  38. Redwood sorrel (Oxalis oregana). Pink; sometimes white, mauve, or bluish.
  39. Redwood violet.
  40. Rose. Pink.
  41. Sedum (aka stonecrop): Pacific sedum (Sedum spathulifolim) with yellow 5-petal flowers on solo succulent stem; flat basal rosette of leaves.
  42. Solomon's seal: Star (or slim) Solomon's seal (Smilacina stellata). White 6-petaled flowers on separate stems. (As opposed to Branched (or fat) Solomon's seal (Smilacina racemosa).)
  43. Thistles (ssp.). Red.
  44. Toothwort: California Toothwort (Dentaria californica). Pink.
  45. Vetches (Vicia ssp.). Purple.
  46. Yarrow: Common yarrow (Achillea millefolium). White.
  47. Yarrow: Golden yarrow (Eriophyllum confertiflorum). Yellow.
  48. YCs: Yellow composites.
  49. Yerba de selva (a.k.a. Weed of the Woods) (Whipplea modesta).
  50. Yerba santa (aka Holy Herb or California mountain balm) (Eriodictyon californicum). Blue.


July 8th, 2009:

No newts or banana slugs; lots of newts; many bunnies near the marshes. Mild, sunny.

Feral alien flowers include: bull thistle (Cirsium vulgare); forget-me-not; foxglove (Digitalis purpurea); New Zealand fireweed (Erichtides minima); poison hemlock (Conium maculatum); stinging nettle; white nightshade (Solanum nodiflorum); wild radish.

The mysterious pampas grass (location described in May) still in flourishing, but the official notice of the experiment is removed so apparently it is now an unofficial experiment.

Natives included:

  1. Alum root (a.k.a. crevice heuchera or small-flowered heuchera) (Heuchera micrantha).
  2. Western azalea. Cream.
  3. Blackberry: California (or Pacific) blackberry (Rubus ursinus). White.
  4. Boykinia: Coast Boykinia (a.k.a. Brook Foam), Boykinia Elata. 5 open white petals.
  5. Buckeye: California buckeye (Aesculus californica). White.
  6. Bush Lupine. Yellow.
  7. Bush Poppy. Yellow.
  8. Chaparral pea (Pickeringia montana).
  9. Cow parsnip (Heracleum lanatum).
  10. Cudweed.
  11. Deerweed, a.k.a. California broom (Lotus scoparius). Yellow and red.
  12. Elk's Clover a.k.a. Spikenard. White flowers, huge leaves, always near water.
  13. Figwort: California figwort (a.k.a. California bee-plant) (Scrophularia californica): short red-brown snapdragon-like flowers with overbite (2 upper petals project); stems square and coarse; leaves large and square; height to 6 feet.
  14. Flax: Western blue flax (Linum perenne). Blue.
  15. Harebell: California Harebell, Asyneuma prenanthoides (blue).
  16. Hairy honeysuckle, Lonicera hispidula (pink).
  17. Hawkweed (white); similar growth pattern to madia.
  18. Hedge nettle: California hedge nettle. Pink.
  19. Lily: Leopard lily (a.k.a. Tiger Lily) (Adenocaulon bicolor).
  20. Lupine (Lupinus ssp.).
  21. Madia: Common madia (alternate leaves) (Madia elegans).
  22. Monkey flower. Orange.
  23. Ocean Spray (Holodiscus discolor): shrub with creamy-white sprays of tiny 5-petal, 5 pistils, and long stamens. Hairy leaves.
  24. Paintbrush.
  25. Redwood sorrel (Oxalis oregana). Pink; sometimes white, mauve, or bluish.
  26. Redwood violet.
  27. Sedum (aka stonecrop): Pacific sedum (Sedum spathulifolim) with yellow 5-petal flowers on solo succulent stem; flat basal rosette of leaves.
  28. Sugar scoop (saxifrage, sometimes called False Mitrewort), Tiatella unifoliata. White.
  29. Thistles (ssp.). Red.
  30. Trail Plant (Adenocaulon bicolor). White.
  31. Vetches (Vicia ssp.). Purple.
  32. Yarrow: Common yarrow (Achillea millefolium). White.
  33. Yarrow: Golden yarrow (Eriophyllum confertiflorum). Yellow.
  34. YCs: Yellow composites.
  35. Yerba santa (aka Holy Herb or California mountain balm) (Eriodictyon californicum). Blue.


August 11th, 2009:

No newts or banana slugs; lots of lizards. Mild, sunny.

Natives included:

  1. Alum root (a.k.a. crevice heuchera or small-flowered heuchera) (Heuchera micrantha).
  2. Boykinia: Coast Boykinia (a.k.a. Brook Foam), Boykinia Elata. 5 open white petals.
  3. Bush Lupine. Yellow.
  4. Bush Poppy. Yellow.
  5. Deerweed, a.k.a. California broom (Lotus scoparius). Yellow and red.
  6. Eriogonum: Coast eriogonum (Eriogonum latifolium). Pale dusky pink.
  7. Harebell: California Harebell, Asyneuma prenanthoides (blue).
  8. Hairy honeysuckle, Lonicera hispidula (pink).
  9. Hawkweed (white); similar growth pattern to madia.
  10. Hedge nettle: California hedge nettle. Pink.
  11. Monkey flower. Orange.
  12. Sugar scoop (saxifrage, sometimes called False Mitrewort), Tiatella unifoliata. White.
  13. Trail Plant (Adenocaulon bicolor). White.
  14. YCs: Yellow composites.


September 2nd, 2009:

No newts or banana slugs; lots of lizards. Very hot, sunny.

Feral alien flowers include: bull thistle (Cirsium vulgare); jubata grass (Cortaderia jubata) with flowering plumes in the marsh and on the lower valley side [this is the mysterious 'pampas' grass (noted in May) but it is pinker than pampas grass]; poison hemlock (Conium maculatum); white lawn clover; white nightshade (Solanum nodiflorum).

Natives included:

  1. Alum root (a.k.a. crevice heuchera or small-flowered heuchera) (Heuchera micrantha).
  2. Blackberry: California (or Pacific) blackberry (Rubus ursinus). White.
  3. Boykinia: Coast Boykinia (a.k.a. Brook Foam), Boykinia Elata.
  4. Bush Lupine. Yellow.
  5. Bush Poppy. Yellow.
  6. Deerweed, a.k.a. California broom (Lotus scoparius). Yellow and red.
  7. Harebell: California Harebell, Asyneuma prenanthoides (blue).
  8. Hairy honeysuckle, Lonicera hispidula (pink).
  9. Hawkweed (white); similar growth pattern to madia.
  10. Hedge nettle: California hedge nettle. Pink.
  11. Monkey flower. Orange.
  12. Sugar scoop (saxifrage, sometimes called False Mitrewort), Tiatella unifoliata. White.
  13. Trail Plant (Adenocaulon bicolor). White.
  14. Yarrow: Golden yarrow (Eriophyllum confertiflorum). Yellow.
  15. YCs: Yellow composites.


October 7th, 2009: 9:10 a.m. - 6:40 p.m. (9.5 hours).

A few banana slugs and lizards. Mild, sunny.

Feral alien flowers include: bull thistle (Cirsium vulgare); forget-me-not; poison hemlock (Conium maculatum); spiderwort (Tradescantia fluminensis) white nightshade (Solanum nodiflorum).

Natives included:

  1. Alum root (a.k.a. crevice heuchera or small-flowered heuchera) (Heuchera micrantha).
  2. Aster: Common California Aster (Aster chilensis) or similar. Purple rays.
  3. Blackberry: California (or Pacific) blackberry (Rubus ursinus). White.
  4. Bush Lupine. Yellow.
  5. Bush Poppy. Yellow.
  6. Coyote bush: some plants have male-only flowers and others are female only. Fellow hikers and plant guy Chuck B. says:

    "Female flowers of Baccharis are the "fluffy" ones. The "spiky" ones are the male flowers. (The spikes are the stamens.) Baccharis is an Asteraceae and will develop wind-born seeds.

  7. Eriogonum: Coast eriogonum (Eriogonum latifolium). Pale dusky pink.
  8. Harebell: California Harebell (Asyneuma prenanthoides). Blue.
  9. Hawkweed. White.
  10. Hedge nettle: California hedge nettle. Pink.
  11. Monkey flower. Orange.
  12. Pearly everlasting.
  13. Poppy: California poppy (Eschscholzia californica). Orange.
  14. Sugar scoop (saxifrage, sometimes called False Mitrewort) (Tiatella unifoliata). White.
  15. Yarrow: Common yarrow (Achillea millefolium). White.
  16. Yarrow: Golden yarrow (Eriophyllum confertiflorum). Yellow.
  17. YCs: Yellow composites.


November 11th, 2009: 8:00 a.m. - 4:26 p.m. (8.4 hours).

Time taken for the different stages is reported above.

A few banana slugs. Cool, hazy with a little sun; humidity and horse poop brought out the flies.

Feral alien flowers include: bull thistle (Cirsium vulgare); forget-me-not; white nightshade (Solanum nodiflorum).

Natives included:

  1. Aster: Common California Aster (Aster chilensis) or similar. Purple rays.
  2. Blackberry: California (or Pacific) blackberry (Rubus ursinus). White.
  3. Bush Lupine. Yellow.
  4. Bush Poppy. Yellow.
  5. Coyote bush.
  6. Hawkweed. White.
  7. Hedge nettle: California hedge nettle. Pink.
  8. Pearly everlasting.
  9. Manzanita: Small-leaved (sensitive) manzanita .
  10. Yarrow: Golden yarrow (Eriophyllum confertiflorum). Yellow.
  11. YCs: Yellow composites.


December 2nd, 2009: 7:15 a.m. - 3:42 p.m. (8 hours 27 min).

Time taken for the different stages last month were reported above; here are the times for this month:

A few banana slugs and newts. Cool and misty with initial headwind (off-shore); sunnier and drier later. Rosehips.

Feral alien flowers include: bindweed; bull thistle (Cirsium vulgare); forget-me-not; mustard; oxalis; white nightshade (Solanum nodiflorum).

Natives included:

  1. Aster: Common California Aster (Aster chilensis) or similar. Purple rays.
  2. Blackberry: California (or Pacific) blackberry (Rubus ursinus). White.
  3. Bush Lupine. Yellow.
  4. Bush Poppy. Yellow.
  5. Hedge nettle: California hedge nettle. Pink.
  6. Manzanita: Small-leaved (sensitive) manzanita .
  7. Miner's lettuce. White.
  8. Sugar scoop (saxifrage, sometimes called False Mitrewort) (Tiatella unifoliata). White.
  9. Redwood Sorrel (Oxalis oregana).
  10. Toothwort (Dentaria californica).
  11. Yarrow: Common yarrow (Achillea millefolium). White.
  12. Yarrow: Golden yarrow (Eriophyllum confertiflorum). Yellow.
  13. YCs: Yellow composites.

Ferns include:

  1. bracken fern.
  2. California Polypody.
  3. chain fern.
  4. common lady fern.
  5. deer fern.
  6. five-finger fern.
  7. goldback fern.
  8. maidenhair fern.
  9. sword fern.
  10. wood fern.

Birds seen on the OWCH loop

Check birding advice in Sibley's Birding Basics by David Allen Sibley.

Heard but not yet seen:

Additional birds seen on the shore at Waddell Beach (and sometimes in the air from OWCH trail near the beach):

Other amazing things seen on the OWCH loop